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Mastering the Narrow Hemmer, Part Three
´╗┐Challenge Types

Youve decided to try your hand and intellect at being a Solver. So, what type of Innovation Challenges can you expect to find? There are several types, and we urge you to check them all out. Even if they seem out of your realm of experience, your fresh ideas and thoughts might lead to the best solution. Be brave. Be daring. This could include ideas for a new product line, creative solutions to technical problems, a new commercial application for a current product, or even a viral marketing idea for recruiting new customers. s guarantee that at least one Solver will win an award. Additionally, the posting period is typically shorter than with other Challenge types, resulting in quicker timetosolution. A solution to a will solidify the Solvers concept with detailed descriptions, specifications, supporting precedents, and requirements necessary to bringing a good idea closer to becoming an actual product, technical solution, or service. A Solver can expect a substantial financial reward if their submission is chosen as the winning solution by the seeking organization, but an award need only be made if all the Challenge criteria are met. In an RTP Challenge, in addition to a detailed description, Solvers are asked to present physical evidence that proves their solution will work within the seeking organizations specific needs, decision criteria, or manufacturing parameters. Solvers are given more time to generate data needed to support their proposals and prepare a response, and the financial awards are typically larger to reward the greater commitment required to work on these Challenges. Like the , an award need only be made if all the Challenge criteria are met. s can take the form of Ideation, Theoretical, RTP, and s. Also called Prodigy Challenges by InnoCentive, these are addons to Theoretical or RTP Challenges which enable Solvers to obtain objective feedback on the accuracy of their solutions relative to the Challenge requirements and to other Solvers. The accuracy of each solution is compared, scored, and published in a leaderboard format on the InnoCentive website. Solvers are then able to rework and resubmit their solutions based on feedback to see their status on the leaderboard change. Many types of computational Challenges can be formulated to use the Prodigy online scoring system, including statistical analysis, predictions, and optimization of computer programs. Large financial awards for the winners of s are typical.

Novel Molecule Challenge NMC

A request for various noncommercial chemical compounds, proteins, extracts, polymers, and DNA sequences linked by a common substructure, property, origin, or biological activity. Seeking organizations use these Challenges to investigate structureactivity relationships, obtain novel intermediates, expand library diversity, and so on. Solvers submit structures they have or are willing to make, and seeking organizations choose those of interest. Solvers receive a modest award in exchange for delivery of the compound and nonexclusive rights for the seeking organization to use the compound internally. Solvers may receive a much larger award in the future if the seeking organization decides that they desire exclusive IP rights to the compound.

Electronic Request for Proposal eRFP

A request for a partner or supplier to provide materials or expertise to help solve a business Challenge. Seeking organizations use the InnoCentive marketplace to find businesses or consultants that have already developed the technology they need or have the experience to help them develop it. Unlike other Challenges where a cash award is granted for the winning solution, eRFP winners typically negotiate the terms of the contract directly with the seeking organization.

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Mastering the Narrow Hemmer, Part Two
´╗┐Ardis kind had a skull fit for a hominid

KNOXVILLE One of the most controversial proposed members of the human evolutionary family, considered an ancient ape by some skeptical scientists, is the real hominid deal, an analysis of a newly reconstructed skull base finds.

By 4.4 million years ago, Ardipithecus ramidus already possessed a relatively short, broad skull base with a forwardplaced opening for the spinal cord, an arrangement exclusive to ancient hominids and people today, William Kimbel of Arizona State University in Tempe reported on April 11 at the American Association of Physical Anthropologists annual meeting.

Although features of the skulls floor evolved substantially in Homo species leading to modern humans, Kimbel said, those changes appeared in piecemeal fashion starting at least a couple of million years earlier in hominids such as Ardipithecus.

A. ramidus is best known by the partial skeleton of an adult female, dubbed Ardi, described in a set of papers published in 2009 SN: 10/24/09, p. 9. Elements of Ardis build related to tree climbing, such as grasping feet and an elongated lower hip bone, have raised suspicions that she and her kind come from apes that evolved a rudimentary ability to walk upright without being hominids. However, Ardis discoverers argue that shes a hominid whose species split time between slow, awkward walking and shuffling along tree branches while grabbing upper branches for support.

The new skull reconstruction, which fits that view, relied on a partial A. ramidus skull base reported in 1994, long before Ardis remains were painstakingly removed for analysis from rock that had encased the partial skeleton in Ethiopia.

By examining 79 skull bases of chimps, gorillas, modern humans and ancient hominids, Kimbels group identified relationships among anatomical landmarks that distinguish apes from people and hominids. The researchers estimated the total length of A. ramidus skull bottom and found that it fell within a range characteristic of hominids, not apes.

As in more recent members of the Australopithecus genus, such as the 3.2millionyearold partial skeleton nicknamed Lucy, Ardipithecus ramidus displays a relatively short, humanlike skull base, Kimbel said.

A new 3D analysis of Ardis previously reconstructed pelvis, also presented April 11 at the anthropology meeting, finds a mix of monkey, ape and hominid characteristics. Although not confirming a consistently upright gait, this version of Ardis hips doesnt undermine her proposed hominid status, said Nicole Webb of City University of New York, who led the research.

As for Ardis disputed mode of travel, she probably had a twolegged gait but didnt use her hands much while upright, said Caley Orr of Midwestern University in Downers Grove, Ill., who didnt participate in the new research.